Friday, August 21, 2020

Affirmative Action v. Quotas, disparate treatment and disparate Coursework

Governmental policy regarding minorities in society v. Quantities, unique treatment and divergent effect, work voluntarily - Coursework Example Amounts, then again, allude to a set number or rate for the portrayal of individuals of a given gathering. The fundamental distinction between governmental policy regarding minorities in society and shares is that while governmental policy regarding minorities in society has no set least rates for the portrayal of a secured gathering, quantities give this. This makes quantities simpler to screen thought about that the rules for deciding if an establishment has gone along is foreordained. Different effect is simpler to demonstrate contrasted with unique treatment. While dissimilar effect includes centers around oppressive results, different treatment takes a gander at unfair purpose. One would, along these lines, assume that it is simpler to build up the outcomes of segregation than to set up the goal of separation. Verification of unfair intention doesn't, thusly, isn't a piece of the different effect hypothesis. This infers setting up the results of segregation inside an organization doesn't include the commitments of an institution’s the executives as it is the situation with building up the rationale behind separation. The work voluntarily convention alludes to the basic standard that a business contract with no characterized length can be fired by either the business or the worker whenever without the gathering ending the agreement giving valid justifications to doing as such. This teaching conflicts with the â€Å"good will† necessity pushed by representative associations. Not at all like the voluntarily convention, the cooperative attitude prerequisite guesses that businesses need to exhibit that it is for a decent purpose that they expect to fire an employee’s

Monday, July 13, 2020

Informaition Technology Example

Informaition Technology Example Informaition Technology â€" Assignment Example > 30th April 2010Comparison of the IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth protocol stack to the OSI modelIEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth protocol stack is based on the Bluetooth technology, and it is commonly used in cases of wireless personal area network. Some of the features associated with this technology include low cost, short range, small networks, and communication within a radius of less than ten meters. On the other hand, OSI model defines a layered communication layer that is utilised in network protocol design especially in computers. OSI model divides the network architecture to seven distinct layers that complement each other (Cooklev, 2004). These seven layers each has specific role that ensures information and data is passed from one network link to another ensuring integrity of the entire process is championed. IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth protocol stack also has layers that aides the transfer of data and voice into ensuring the process of communication is fulfilled. Thus, the two technologies play a major role that is similar to some extent, which means that there are certain features that they share. OIS and IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth protocol stack share certain technological characteristics, especially the data link layer and physical layer of OSI model. These two layers complements with four sub-layers of IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth protocol stack model (Walke, Mangold Berlemann, 2006). RF layer is associated with antenna power range; the baseband layer allows establishment of Bluetooth physical link that exists between the devices been connected â€" forming a piconet, the link manager allows setting up links between the Bluetooth devices in question. Other tanks that are completed by the link manager include power mode, security and connection states of devices. The Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) provide a medium in which upper layer protocols can communicate with each other easily (Angelescu, 2009). IEEE’s Project 802The IEEE 802 is a name that is given to standards that deals with metropolitan area networks and local area networks. This means that the project considerations for those networks that vary variable size packets; this differs with other technologies such as the cell-based network in which data is transmitted uniformly in units called cells, or isochronous networks in which data is transmitted in streams (Angelescu, 2009). The number 802 originates from three next free numbers that could be assigned by IEEE; it is also associated with the first meeting, which took place in February 1980. The protocols and services that are specified in the IEEE 802 are mapped to the physical link and data link of the OSI model. Furthermore, the IEEE 802 further splits the Data Link layer into two layers that are commonly referred to as Media Access Control (MAC) and Logical Link Control (LLC). Because of its presences in the OSI model, the layers become Data Link Layer (with MAC Sub-layer and LLC Sub-layer), and the Physical Layer (Dubendorf, 2003). During the IEEE meeting, different proposals were presented in which the entire project was divided into three groups. Group IEEE 802.1 dealt with general architecture that brought into consideration bridging techniques and VLAN, the second group, IEEE 802.2 were response for Logical Link Control Protocols such as Internet Protocol, and the third group, IEEE 802.3 were responsible for the medium and physical access control requirements and are credited for producing over 30 standards. Other and newer committees that played a major role in defining networking fundamentals include IEEE 802.11 for wireless LANs (Wi-Fi) and IEEE 802.16 were responsible for Wi-Max (Walke, Mangold Berlemann, 2006).

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Human resource management and leadership development - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1728 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? The leadership and philosophies of African leaders have affected institutions and companies in various African countries for many years. For example, charismatic leaders were believed to be those who have the natural capacity and personality traits or qualities to lead. Hence, leaders were said to be born or natural great men. Traditionally, leadership was said to be an attribute of personality. Born or charismatic leaders became real leaders because they have such personality qualities but also: ambition, patience, pride, humility, wisdom, friendliness, dependability, force, endurance and, of course, managerial competence. Modern functional leadership is essentially to facilitate the interaction within a group to achieve present goals, to realise the organizations strategic objectives. Such functional managers or leaders are usually nominated, appointed and selected from among equals. If people utilize proper and effective managerial tools and motivation, perform ance and effectiveness increase considerably. Of course, this is also applicable to African managers and leaders acquiring or possessing modern functional leadership skills in a target achievement and productive environment (Kiggundu, 1990, p683-685). LITERATURE REVIEW Most leaders want to be more effective in their leadership. Some think they only need to learn techniques, others assume that they can learn a magic formula or foolproof method. Effective functional leadership implies an intensive development process. Some of the ability comes as a result of experience and mistakes of others, from personal insights and by learning managerial skills. To become truly effective African managers and leaders they will have to be developed through sustainable leadership and managerial competency programmes that offer training with a difference. These development efforts should be highly interactive, aimed at leadership and managerial competence such as delegation and responsibilities acceptance. These customized interventions are generally for a short period, followed up and coached by their superiors. I.e. the participants should be given room to experiment with their newly acquired skills (Kanungo, 1990). It is certain that African countries will grow and develop in the coming years; look at the example of the pace of growth of mobile phone networks and coverage. Efficient infrastructures, systems and processes are put in place. However, just this is not enough; Inspiring functional leadership is an absolute necessity for growth. Sustainable investment in the modern development of African managers and leaders is primordial. In order to accelerate and maintain growth in sub-Saharan Africa we must put in place the right learning work environment and formal, high-impact development possibilities (Onah, 1981). The subject of International human resource management has been growing in leaps and bounds in the last decade. As a result, there is now an impressiv e corpus of knowledge on the dynamics and challenges of managing people in various parts of the world and how these approaches cultural and other contextual factors. However, as some authors have pointed out, there is a disturbing unevenness both in the breadth and depth of research into comparative and international human resource management. For example, Kochan et al. (1992) noted a number of weaknesses that characterize international HR research. These include a narrow focus on giving advice to expatriates, neglect of theory while focusing on the needs of international particularly American and an apparent preference for cultural explanations at the expense of institutional, strategic, political and economic ones. In the intervening years, there has clearly been an improvement and the IHRM debate has matured remarkably. Nevertheless, many of these weaknesses have not been resolved conclusively. Thus in a recent extensive review of the literature, Clark et al. (1999) identified two major short comings: an apparent insulation from previous work and critiques of cross-national and international management research and second, an overwhelmingly Anglo-Saxon perspective in much of the research. The Asian region has witnessed a lot of interest in the recent years. There has also been some attention given to the emerging economies in Eastern Europe and South America. These economies have been described variously as emerging, which in the case of the former refers to their abandoning centralized planning. Some of these emerging and, in the case of east Asian economies certainly prior to 1997, Tiger economies enjoyed rapid economic growth rates and at the same time attracted a lot of academic curiosity. Africa has not participated fully in either set of activities. As i note elsewhere (Kamoche, 2001) researchers seem not sure where to locate Africa since African countries have neither been growing at impressive rate nor are they emerging from the stagnation of centralized planning of the eastern European type. A gap thus remains in our understanding of the complexity of Human resource management in Africa as academic research in the mainstream literature focuses elsewhere. The purpose of this special issue is to rectify this imbalance. While the literature on African management problem remains comparatively modest, multinationals on the other side have been making inroads into what some see as the last great frontier. Determining how to characterize and categorise the nature of management in Africa is a task that has continued to haunt researchers. Jackson argues that the tendency to cast the problem into a developing/developed world dichotomy is not only pejorative, but it also hampers critical research into the subject. There is, according to him, a danger in trying to make the developing more like the developed, thus denying the indigenous roots of the approaches that are suitable to Africa. He thus proposes a cross-cultural model t hat incorporates various perceptions of the value of people in organizations and proposes managing people in such a way as to build cross-cultural synergies. In line with Jacksonss critique of the developing-developed dichotomy, Horwitz et al. Argue that there has been an over emphasis on comparative analysis between Africa and the Western nations. In fact, the term developed world tends to refer to Europe and North America. They argue that it is now worth turning attention to the East where interesting developments are been taking place, as African mangers, particularly from some Southern African countries, begin to cultivate business relations with their counterparts in East Asia (Alfred Kanungo, 1990). They suggest that research will need to go beyond the current framework of convergence-divergence and begin to embrace elements of cross-vergence with particular regard to the diffusion of high-performance work practices. The issue of cross-vergence is pursued further in Anakwe s analysis of Human resource management practices in one African country-Nigeria. She found that, in a survey of organizations across three major cities, the HR practices were a blend of western or foreign practices reflecting the significance of the local context. This analysis offers a critique of the predominant convergence perspective, which according to the author, has been a source of confusion, frustration and malaise among the Nigerian workforce. Therefore there is a need for organizations to take into account the specific circumstances of their labour force while designing and implementing HR practices. Multinational firms have an important role to play in African economies. In the past this role has generated a lot of controversy especially where these firms engage in unethical practices including the exploitation of workers and the destruction of the environment. According to Harvey et al., multinational firms are well placed to stimulate the development of human ca pital not merely through the traditional routes of creating employment and diffusing knowledge through expatriates but also through African experts who have gained knowledge by working in the West. An interesting paradox is the double-edge nature of social-cultural diversity in Africa. With up to 2000 different cultural-linguist groups/tribes, the potential for ethnic conflicts is never too far away. It is generally assumed that the arbitrary drawing of boundaries following the European scramble for Africa and the subsequent use of divide-and-rule colonial practice served to accentuate hostile tribal sentiments where none previously existed or they were merely latent (see also Leys, 1975). The importance of the family as a socializing unit and source of identity is amplified further at the ethnic level. As such, Africans tend to relate more to the tribe than to the seemingly abstract notion of nation-state. This ultimately manifests itself in favorism along kinship and ethnic lin es because the culture requires people to care for and support kith, kin and tribesmen. This very complex issue has been addressed in a number of contributions in this volume, either directly or indirectly. Nyamberga tackles the nature of ethnicity and seeks to assess the relevance of the concept of diversity. He argues that, since ethnicity is such a central construct in diversity, there is a need for organisations to adopt policies of inclusion as opposed to exclusion in managing the ethnically diverse African workforce. Beugre locates his analysis within the organizational justice discourse. He argues that the dramatic social and political change that have been taking place across the continent are likely to spill over into a quest for justice and empowerment in organizations. Managers should therefore anticipate these trends and proceed to develop and implement fair organizational practices. These social and political changes have perhaps been more dramatic in recent years in South Africa with the dismantling of apartheid. Horwitz et al. investigate the extent to which recent legislative measures have helped address the enduring legacy of apartheid. They find that these measures are, in the main, inconsistent and inadequate, and that, although a legislative framework might exist, commitment to change at the organizational level remains a daunting challenge. Doing business in Africa is something many Western mangers and investors often find to be an extremely difficult task. Problems include lack of familiarity with the competitive environment, laws and regulations that are difficult to understand and which in some cases appear to be erratic and capricious. This confusion does little to assure confidence to potential investors. Harvey dramatizes these challenges metaphorically by drawing from Lewis Carrolls Alice in Wonderland. He suggests that to western managers, with limited knowledge of the African business environment, their experiences are analogou s to Alices attempt to make sense of the rules and characters she encountered in her adventure. He then posits a model to help make sense of the challenge of developing HR practices in Africa, paying attention to categorise of African countries and the prevailing type of political leadership. THE RESEARCHES AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The research paper has the following aims and objectives; To explore the concept of leadership in HRM in Africa. To assess the current scenario of leadership in HRM in African corporate world. To analyse the initiatives by the government in the development of leaders in HRM. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Human resource management and leadership development" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Case Of Roe V. Wade - 984 Words

On January 22, 1973, the Supreme Court, on the case of Roe v Wade, ruled to legalize abortion in all fifty US states. Forty two years after this decision, approximately 56 million abortions have been performed in the US alone and this number continues to climb drastically day to day. For some individuals, this number is simply not enough. For example, in her article, It Is Time to Integrate Abortion into Primary Care, Susan Yanow argues the case that abortion is here to stay. With this observation, she further believes that the procedure should be made more available to all women, and likewise, any physician should be easily allowed to perform abortions. Susan Yanow begins by advocating for the increased availability of procuring abortions for all women no matter their income, location, or age. She offers a complaint against the many barriers for woman to obtaining an abortion, â€Å"State restrictions†¦ create almost insurmountable barriers to access, especially for rural , young, and low-income women.† Yanow argues that women should not have to travel long distances or deal with unnecessary requirements in order to â€Å"get the reproductive health care they need.† She resolves this by insisting on integrating abortion into primary care in such a way that family physicians at home be allowed to perform first trimester abortions. As one continues through the article, Yanow’s position becomes increasingly clear. She points out that most primary care clinicians already have theShow MoreRelatedThe Case Of Roe V. Wade1455 Words   |  6 PagesOn January 23, 1973, the landmark case Roe v. Wade established a new law that would change women’s rights for years to come. This controversial case made it legal to have an abortion, which made it safer for women around the country. In 1972, a year before Roe v. Wade, there were approximately 587,000 illegal abortions performed (Roe v. Wade). These abortions were highly dangerous beca use they lacked medical equipment and a trained professional. In some instances, the mother could even die from theRead MoreThe Case : Roe V. Wade1396 Words   |  6 Pages4. Clarence Thomas. 5. Ruth Bader Ginsburg. 6. Stephen G. Breyer. 7. Samuel Anthony Alito. 8. Sonia Sotomayor. 9. Elena Kagan. Roe v. Wade Roe v. Wade In the dubious case, Roe v. Wade, a pregnant lady who was given the name Jane Roe to shroud her personality endeavored to get an abortion yet they were unlawful in Texas so she sued the state for attack of protection. Roe s genuine name is Norma McCorvey; she assaulted and got to be pregnant. In 1969, when she moved back to her home state, she wasRead MoreRoe V. Wade Case972 Words   |  4 PagesRoe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, 93 S. Ct. 705, 35 L. Ed. 2d 147 (1973). Roe V. Wade was a case that â€Å"divided the country into those who believed in an unborn child s right to life and those who believed in a woman s right to choose†(Kayla Webley). In 1970 a single Texas mother of two at the time by the name of Norma McCorvey (alias Jane Roe) was pregnant with her third child. She decided she did not want the weight of raising another kid, but in Texas at the time abortions were not allowed unless itRead MoreThe Case Of Roe V. Wade1066 Words   |  5 Pages Roe V. Wade In today’s day and age, abortions are commonplace in most states, legal and readily available to women everywhere. But believe it or not, this has not always been the case. In fact, there was a time in history not too long ago where abortions were outlawed in nearly every state in the United States with the exception of extraordinary circumstances. Prohibitions of abortions were first passed in 1821 and by the end of the century, every state in the country, had laws on banningRead MoreThe Case Of Roe V. Wade972 Words   |  4 Pagestrue, in our society abortion is an extremely controversial subject, however, it is also safe to say that it is a very opinionated matter between those who do and do not believe in it. Abortion has been legal in the United States since the case of Roe v. Wade in the winter of 1973 labeling it as a â€Å"fundamental right†, it has since been a moral issue within our society. The decision to terminate ones own pregnancy is in their own hand s and the effects of termination mentally and physically are theirRead MoreThe Case Roe V. Wade Essay2062 Words   |  9 PagesSince the 1960s, the fight to receive accessible and affordable abortions has been a largely controversial issue in the United States. The case Roe v. Wade was the climax of that fight, for â€Å"the Court held that... only a pregnant woman and her doctor have the legal right to make the decision about an abortion† (â€Å"History of Abortion†). Although Roe v. Wade ultimately made abortions legal in the States, there are still setbacks for affordable and accessible abortions today, and many of these conflictsRead MoreThe Case Of Roe V. Wade992 Words   |  4 Pagescurrently being challenged with is the affair of abortion. In 1973 the Supreme Court of the United States was presented the case of Roe v Wade. The ruling decided a person has the right to privacy protected by the due process clause of the 14th amendment. This gave women the right t o decide to have an abortion, but only under regulations from the state. As a result of this case, scientific research was conducted on stem cells starting in 1978 when a scientist discovered stem cells in human cord bloodRead MoreThe Roe V. Wade Court Case1586 Words   |  7 Pageselaborate my topic on is the Roe v. Wade court case which is about abortion. The case history is about a woman who was single and pregnant; she decided to bring a stimulating challenge suit to the constitution of Texas laws. The laws that Texas made were given to prohibit mothers from aborting children because it was a crime. They could not do it without medical advice for the reason that it was to save the life of the unborn child. As I begin to go into detail about the court case. First Dr. Hallford, aRead MoreThe Supreme Court Case Roe V. Wade1417 Words   |  6 PagesIn 1973 the Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade established the legality of abortions. Since then, 23 cases on women’s reproductive rights have been through the Supreme Court, five of which have directly involved Planned Parenthood as the petitioner or respondent. Each of these has posed some threat to Planned Parenthood’s ability to provide abortion and have had the potential to deal a serious blow to women’s reproductive rights as whole. Nonetheless, Planned Parenthood has persevered and retained theirRead MoreCivil Court Case Of Roe V. Wade1332 Words   |  6 PagesDoes This Mean War? Abortion has been one of the most controversial topics of America fought between two sides since the 1800s. It was not until the 1973 Supreme Court case of Roe v. Wade, that the two sides that are known today as Pro-Choice and Pro-Life emerged as the names of the people fighting for each of their thoughts and beliefs. Why does any battle, fight, or war start? Well, because two sides cannot get what they each want. One wants freedom of choice and the other wants the baby’s life

Sir Lancelot Analysis Free Essays

Sir Lancelot is the greatest knight at the Round Table. Lancelot is Arthur’s best friend and yet is completely different in that he performs heroic acts by accident. Lancelot is too humble to allow all his heroic acts to improve his self-image. We will write a custom essay sample on Sir Lancelot Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now A hero is someone who engages in a heroic act risking or losing his or her life to save someone else’s. Sir Lancelot is a hero. Lancelot is brave. Lancelot could be called brave because he wasn’t afraid to kill people. If a situation needed immediate action Lancelot was there to battle another knight. Lancelot chose to go on adventures putting aside the dangers he might face. He fought willingly for people, and stood up for himself when he met the witches and battled other knights. Lancelot is loyal. Being loyal means showing support to someone. Lancelot stayed loyal to the one girl he loved even though she was already married. A girl asked Lancelot to fight for her dad and she would free him, and he courageously fought for her dad and didn’t try to get away. Lancelot was loyal to King Arthur by fighting along side him and joining him at the Round Table. Sir Lancelot is a hero. He is considered to be one of the greatest and most trusted of King Arthur’s knights and he played a huge part in King Arthur’s victories. Lancelot is a hero because he battles with honor and strategy, he understands how to win. Lancelot was heroic because he never failed in gentleness, courage, or courtesy. No matter who he was he still served others. How to cite Sir Lancelot Analysis, Papers

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The Bell Jar Essays (1310 words) - Julius And Ethel Rosenberg

The Bell Jar Esther and Patriarchy "The Bell Jar", which is written by Sylvia Plath, indicates that patriarchal society has many effects on women. Men have power over women in both direct and indirect ways. In this paper, I would like to concern about Esther and patriarchy. Men use their power directly to oppress Esther. Also they use power indirectly to set up social values and sexual stereotyping which have many effects on Esther. To begin with men's power that affects Esther directly, there is the issue of sexual discrimination that is shown obviously in the novel. In the patriarchal society, men are in-control. Also, men have women in their power. Women are oppressed by men. As for Esther, men have many effects on her life. There are many men who oppress her. Firstly, Marco, who falls in love with his cousin, has almost raped her. He can't have his wish fulfilled because his cousin is going to be a nun. Esther doesn't have any idea that a man who falls in love with his cousin will see her as a material. He curses the word "slut" at her. She is very disappointed. The thing he does with her is one of the causes that make her break down. Secondly, Irwin, whom Esther meets at the library, doesn't have responsibility. Esther wants to get rid of her virginity. Thus, she decides to seduce Irwin because of his qualities. He is the professor and already has a girlfriend. " I felt the first man I sleep with must be intelligent, so I would respect him...I also needed somebody quite experienced to make up for my lack of it...Then, to be on the safe side, I wanted somebody I didn't know and wouldn't go on knowing..." (P.186). After Esther sleeps with Irwin, she has hemorrhage and must go to see a doctor. Irwin makes her feel disappointed because he isn't responsible for the bill for doctor's curing and checkup. Instead of feeling guilty, he asks her to see him again. Thirdly, Doctor Gordon, who is a psychiatrist, hurts Esther by using shock treatments. What Esther really wants is warmness, but Doctor Gordon doesn't give it to her. He diagnoses her illness and uses the method of curing without concerning her mind. " Then something bent down and took hold of me and shook me like the end of the world. Whee-ee-ee-ee-ee, it shrilled,..., and with each flash a great jolt drubbed me till I thought my bones would break and the sap fly out of me like a split plant." (P.117-118). She feels terrible but she doesn't dare to tell Doctor Gordon. She has to keep her feeling secret. If she doesn't do like that, she might have much more shock treatment. Dr. Gordon: "How do you feel?" Esther: "All right" But I didn't. I felt terrible. (P.118) Esther goes to see Doctor Gordon in order to find someone whom can help her and understand her. She finds a man who tortures her. Instead of making her comfort, he hurts her body. He has the right to cure her by using shock treatment. We can see that Doctor Gordon is a man and a doctor. In Patriarchal society, he has power over Esther who is a woman and a patient. Men are able to do what they wish with Esther. Furthermore, men's power which affects Esther indirectly; there are many social values that make women have limits. Men are persons who fix women's roles and duties in the society. They set up these social values and sexual stereotyping which have many effects on Esther. First of all, women are not expected to have talent and intelligence more than men. Although women have ability to study, academic world is not a field of women. Esther can't be highly successful in her career. In the patriarchal society, men have authority. They will determine whether women can live in men's field. " After my month on the magazine I'd applied for a summer school course with a famous writer where you sent in the manuscript of a story and he read it and said whether you were good enough to be admitted into his class." (P.84) Though Esther studies very well, she is rejected to study in